Naphthalene superplasticizer is a chemical industry synthesized admixture used to increase the strength of concrete. It is non-corrosive and non-chlorine compound. In addition, it also has the advantage of not delaying the early strength growth of hardened concrete.
Naphthalene superplasticizer is used in the construction of pre-cast and cast-in-situ concrete. It can improve the slump retention and fluidity of the cement mixture. It can also reduce water consumption and minimize the damage caused by freezing. Moreover, it is applied on steam-cured precast members.
Naphthalene based superplasticizer is widely used in various industries. This admixture is compatible with different types of Portland Cement. Sodium Naphthalene Sulfonate is a form of naphthalene superplasticizer.
Sodium naphthalene sulfonate is a high range water reducing agent. Unlike other naphthalene based superplasticizer, it has the ability to bind with calcium ions. The calcium ions adsorb to the cement particles. They preferentially bind to the STPP. This results in a reduction in the adsorption of FDN. When a proper dosage is applied, optimum results are achieved.
Sodium Naphthalene Sulfonate has been found to be a useful admixture for concrete with high fluidity. Using sodium naphthalene sulfonate in high fluidity concrete results in a strong, dense, and durable structure. Because of its properties, it is commonly referred to as a superplasticizer.
Several studies have been conducted on naphthalene based superplasticizers. These studies have provided estimates of the optimal dosage, depending on the compressive strength of the concrete. Generally, the optimal dosage is estimated using a 0.3 to 0.5 w/c ratio of naphthalene based superplasticizers in the cement paste.
A Concrete Admixtures Handbook is a guide to all things concrete. Designed for professionals and students of concrete construction, it includes everything from the latest scientific research and technology, to the most important admixtures. Using the Concrete Admixtures Handbook will help you learn more about the concrete industry, and make better informed decisions.
First and foremost, the book is well-written. It is organized into 10 chapters. Each chapter covers a specific topic related to concrete admixtures. For instance, the chapter on the microsilica fume is particularly interesting. This admixture is used to boost strength, permeability, and durability.
The book also has a section on the properties of concrete. There are several types of admixtures, each with their own advantages and disadvantages. These include chemical admixtures, which are a great way to reduce the cost of construction, as well as shrinkage reducing additives, which change the moisture profile of the final product.
Adding a microsilica fume admixture to the mix can also yield a number of useful outcomes, including a more robust bond and increased flexural strength. Likewise, this type of admixture can be added in either a dry or slurry form.
Although this book does not cover every concrete admixture on the market, it does cover the more important ones, such as microsilica admixture and air entrainment. All in all, the book is a must-have for anyone who wants to improve the quality and performance of their concrete projects. Whether you're a seasoned expert or a first-timer, it's a great resource to keep on hand.
Plasticizers are a class of water reducing admixtures that are used to improve the workability of concrete. They are made up of a mixture of organic and inorganic substances.
The amount of plasticizer needed to be added to a cement mix depends on several factors. This includes the type of admixture and the amount of cement. Typically, plasticizers are added between one and four percent of the total weight of the cement.
In addition to improving the workability of the concrete, they also decrease the water-cement ratio. The decreased water-cement ratio leads to improved strength and durability of the concrete.
A typical plasticizer can reduce the water-cement ratio by up to 15 percent. Another advantage of using a plasticizer is that they can improve the look of a green concrete.
As a result of the adsorption of plasticizers on the cement particles, a film is formed that prevents the surface hydration reaction between water and the cement particles. Besides preventing surface hydration, the film also develops a repulsive force that repels the cement particles away from each other.
Superplasticizers are also able to increase the early strength of the concrete. In fact, they can improve the early strength by 50 to 75 percent.
However, there are some downsides to using superplasticizers. For example, the concrete is less sturdily compared to conventional concrete. Additionally, the use of superplasticizers can lead to rapid slump loss.
Superplasticizers are soluble macromolecules that can be found in liquid or powder form. Their chemical structure is characterized by the presence of carboxylic groups and ester groups. These compounds are hundreds of times larger than water molecules.
Lightweight concrete offers many benefits for building owners, contractors and construction engineers. It is a cost effective alternative to ordinary concrete, which is made up of large amounts of cement, aggregates and steel. Several factors affect the price of lightweight concrete. However, when making the decision to use it, you will need to compare its total design costs with normal weight concrete, and weigh the benefits of each.
Lightweight concrete can reduce the dead load of a structure, which means less stress on the supporting members. This helps to reduce inertial seismic forces and greenhouse gasses. Also, the number of trucks needed to deliver concrete is reduced. The reduction in the weight of the structure will lower the physical demands on masons and labor.
Lightweight concrete is also more fire resistant than ordinary concrete. As such, it can be used in higher-rise buildings. In addition, the reduced weight of a structure allows for a smaller foundation.
The cost of lightweight concrete depends on the type of structure you plan to build. A high-rise building such as the Renzo Piano's The Shard in New York City is a good example of its use. With its 95 floors, it took four years to construct.
Thousands of bridges across the country are functionally obsolete. Many of them lack adequate traffic lanes and load capacities. To fix this, structural lightweight concrete has played an important role. Several hundred bridges have been built using lightweight concrete masonry units.
If you're planning to install a custom stamped concrete floor, you'll want to make sure you have a good concrete release agent. These agents help prevent dirt and stains from sticking to the surface and making it hard to clean.
There are many types of release agents on the market. You can purchase them in either liquid or powder form. Liquid releases are typically water-based. They can be applied with a spray bottle or rolled over the surface of the concrete.
Powdered release agents are available in both pigmented and clear varieties. Both types of release agents help impart a subtle color to the concrete and serve as bond breakers.
Many contractors tint clear liquid release agents with a colored version. This process is often used to add accents to the integral color. A colored version can be applied with a pump-type sprayer and strained through a cheesecloth.
Several companies manufacture powdered release agents. Most pack them in 30-pound pails. Typically, you'll want to use no more than three pounds of powder per 100 square feet.
While you'll find a number of different types of release agents on the market, not all provide the same quality of results. Before purchasing a product, check the manufacturer's website for more information. For instance, KLEEN KOTE 111 is a biodegradable release agent that creates a virtually non-stick coating on the concrete. It also protects vehicles from damage during seasonal storage.
If you're planning to apply a sealer after stamping, you'll need to remove enough of the release to allow the sealer to adhere. Some professionals recommend applying a second coat of release after the first.
A high expansion foam generator is a fire suppression device which is designed to produce large volumes of foam. It is used to fight fires in industrial and commercial environments. Typically, high expansion foam is used to reduce the intensity of fires and to control vapors released during a gas spill. The fire suppressant is also commonly used to protect flammable liquid facilities and aircraft hangars.
There are two main types of high expansion generators. The aspirated type uses a water motor to power a fan that forces the air through a screen. This air then expands the foam solution.
The other type uses a foam concentrate, which is mixed with water. The concentrated foam is then sprayed into a stainless steel screen to expand it into millions of tiny bubbles. Once this process is complete, the foam solution is then discharged.
High expansion foam generators are available in a range of output capacities. Depending on the generator, the output can vary from a nominal 5 litres per minute up to a maximum of 1000 litres per minute.
High expansion generators are usually part of a fixed fire protection system that also includes foam concentrate and a proportioning / admixing system. They can be installed vertically or horizontally.
High expansion foam generators are available for fire protection applications, including flammable liquid stores, warehouses, and tunnels. Generally, the generators are able to maintain performance at high back pressures.
High expansion generators are also manufactured with corrosion resistant pipework. These units are CE marked and are suitable for offshore and marine applications.
Concrete color release powder is a specialized pigment used to create the desired effect of an antiqued or random antiquing on a stamped concrete floor. It can be applied directly to the surface of fresh concrete or it can be mixed with a liquid release.
Powdered release agents are generally colored, although some white options are available. They are typically composed of cement, iron oxide pigment, and moisture repellant. The mixture forms very fine airborne dust particulates. This prevents the stamp from sticking to the wet concrete, and helps the imprinting tool to remain clean and crisp.
If you're planning to use a powdered release agent, you will need to cover a large area before stamping. Typically, 30 pounds of powdered release can cover up to 1,000 square feet. To achieve the best results, apply the release evenly with a splash brush.
Once the release has been applied, the pattern will look more natural. It will also add depth to the pattern and make it more realistic. Adding a dark pigment to the release will also increase the appearance of the grooves and corners.
In order to prevent streak marks, it's important to avoid rolling the release over the concrete. Using a paint roller can help. However, dragging on the release will cause discoloration.
A darker powder release will provide the most realistic coloring. Use a lighter one if you want to create a two-tone effect. When the stamp is completely pressed down, the release color will lighten.
A high range water reducer is a type of chemical admixture that improves the strength, durability and flowability of concrete. It is also known as a superplasticizer. The main function of a high range water reducer is to reduce the water-to-cement ratio of the concrete mix. In addition, it can reduce the content of cementitious materials and increase slump.
High range water reducers are usually added at both the batching plant and the construction site. They are used in the production of concrete and masonry for different purposes. Their chemistry differs depending on the purpose. These chemistries include a variety of additives that modify the liquid-vapor interface of concrete.
High range water reducers are often referred to as superplasticizers because they can help lower the water-to-cement ratio of concrete. They are typically polycarboxylate based and can be used to help transform dry concrete to flowable concrete.
High range water reducers can also be used to reduce the cross section of compression members in high rise buildings. In addition, they can be used in the production of high strength concrete. This is important because they can save a substantial amount of money.
Compared to conventional water reducers, a high range water reducer can decrease the amount of water required by more than 12 percent. Therefore, it can improve the durability of concrete in harsh environments.
Compared to conventional water reducers, high range water reducers can also improve workability. This is because they delay the initial setting time of the concrete. However, they can also decrease permeability.
Superplasticizers are polymers that are added to concrete to reduce the water content of the mixture. They also help in improving workability and strength. They are commonly used to produce high performance concrete.
Some of the properties of these admixtures include lower water-cement ratio, self-leveling, and high early strengths. They can be incorporated into concrete in a dose of 0.5 to 3% by weight. Compared to standard plasticizers, these admixtures provide better control over the setting time, and they are a great choice for small corrections on the job site. They are also used to prevent slump.
These admixtures may contain a range of retarders to help maintain temperature. They can also contain accelerators, which can enhance the setting time.
The effectiveness of superplasticizers depends on the type and quantity of the admixture. There are two main types: lignosulfonates and polycarboxylate. Lignosulfonates are a low cost admixture that can be incorporated into the concrete to reduce the set time.
Polycarboxylate (PC) has a strong affinity to cement particles, and it can be mixed into the concrete in a range of 0.15% to 0.30% by weight. It helps improve the initial strength of the concrete, and it can also help reduce the water by 40%. PC is also a more economical base.
Besides the benefits of reducing the water content, superplasticizers can be used to overcome the slump problem. This is mainly done in high strength concrete, and it can give the concrete a higher workability.
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