June 2023


High and Low Expansion Fire Foam Generators

fire foam generator

High Expansion (Hi-Ex) fire foam generators rapidly flood areas with a deep layer of fire suppressing foam to extinguish flames, vapours and combustible gases by enveloping them. This is accomplished by using a mixture of foam concentrate-water sprayed into a special foam producing net at a rate between 200:1 and 1000:1 depending on the system.

SKUM’s Hi-Ex systems can be used for fire suppression at a wide range of locations including warehouses, mining operations, aircraft hangars, oil depots, ship holds, mine shafts and cable ducting. These systems are also useful for rapid extinction and blanketing of large flammable liquid spills and scenes. All units are available with a variety of inlet fittings and sizes to match existing hose lines.

Low Expansion Foam Generator

The Shturm VPG, Vega KNP and Antifire UVPN low expansion foam generators are designed for use at facilities where hazardous substances are stored. They are especially effective at protecting railcar racks, berthing complexes, hangars and warehouses where combustible liquids are stored. These low expansion fire suppression generators are much more resistant to the factors accompanying a fire at production and storage facilities (such as explosions) than traditional deluge sprinklers, which can easily collapse when exposed to high temperatures. They also are not affected by temperature changes and do not require manual direction to the zone of the fire. In addition, the lower expansion of the foam allows long projection distances and heights to be reached without putting the fire fighter at risk.


What Is Admixture in Concrete?

what is admixture in concrete

An admixture in concrete is a material other than water, aggregates and Portland cement that is added to a concrete mixture immediately before or during mixing. Admixtures are used to modify a concrete mix’s properties, including its workability and reduction or acceleration of its setting time.

A variety of admixtures are available in the market that can be used for specific applications, but it is critical to understand the function and application of each type in order to make informed choices. Generally speaking, concrete admixtures are best utilized by professionals who have a detailed understanding of their interrelated effects and how to control them for maximum effect.

Accelerating admixtures speed up the initial set of concrete by increasing the rate of cement hydration. This enables shorter pouring times and early age strengths, especially in cooler temperatures. The use of accelerating admixtures is often required on construction projects with tight schedules, or where the project location is susceptible to climate variations. The most common accelerating admixtures are calcium chloride, triethenolamine and silica fume.

Water-reducing admixtures allow for the use of lower water content while retaining good workability. These admixtures are sometimes called super plasticizers and may reduce the concrete water content by up to 30%. They also increase the concrete strength, reduce its freeze-thaw susceptibility and enhance its workability and durability. Corrosion-inhibiting admixtures inhibit corrosion of reinforcing steel in the concrete and are usually used in marine structures, bridges and other projects that are exposed to high levels of chloride.


Concrete Plasticiser

concrete plasticiser

concrete plasticiser is an admixture used to improve the workability of concrete in various situations. This is particularly useful when the concrete needs to be placed in areas of restricted space such as deep beams, thin sections with high percentage of reinforcement, slab and column junctions etc. It is also very important in situations where a very high degree of workability is required such as pumping of concrete, tremie concreting etc.

The plasticizer increases the fluidity of the concrete mix. However, it does not change the final properties of the hardened concrete. It also allows a lower quantity of water to be used in the concrete and therefore, saves on the cost of water and cement. It can also reduce the heat of hydration in mass concrete, thus saving on energy costs.

Plasticizers can be of different types: 1. Ligno sulfonic acid and its salts 2. Polyglycerol esters 3. Hydroxylated carboxylic acids and their derivatives and changes

concrete plasticisers are an essential ingredient in construction to help achieve the desired strength, durability and quality of the building material. They can increase the workability of concrete, allowing more concrete to be placed in less time. They can also reduce the water-to-cement ratio without hindering workability and prevent cracks and shrinkage in the finished concrete. They can also help with the transport of concrete over long distances, as well as cut labour requirements and costs. In this way, they have played a vital role in advancing the construction industry and enabling it to meet the demands of modern life.


Cement Additives For Strength

cement additives for strength

A concrete additive is a material other than water, aggregates and hydraulic cement used in mixing to modify one or more of the properties of the mixture during the plastic stage. Concrete additives enhance the workability of concrete by increasing or decreasing water content without altering its consistency. They also delay the time it takes for concrete to set and increase strength, such as compressive, tensile and flexural strength.

There are a number of different types of cement additives for strength, such as accelerators, air entrainers, retardants and abrasion control agents. Accelerators help to speed up the rate of hydration in the early stages of cement synthesis, thus shortening the setting times and improving the concrete's strength development at these early ages. Traditionally, calcium chloride has been used as the main accelerating additive.

Other organic chemical accelerators are also available to replace the more traditional corrosive accelerators. These include alkanolamines such as triethanolamine (TEA) and triisopropanolamine (TIPA), which are added in the grinding process. However, they are not very effective compared to Ca(NO3)2.

Air entrainers are used to introduce microscopic air bubbles into the concrete mix to improve its performance. They can reduce segregation and water bleeding, and can prevent the concrete from cracking in cold environments. They can also increase the cohesion force in the concrete, which helps to reduce curling of the concrete during placement.


Conplast SP430 Fosroc Superplasticizer

conplast sp430 fosroc superplasticizer

conplast sp430 fosroc superplasticizer is a chloride free, highly water soluble superplasticising admixture based on selected sulphonated napthalene polymers. It is supplied as a brown solution which instantly disperses in water and is designed to significantly increase the workability of site mixed concrete and precast concrete without increasing water demand. It also increases concrete durability by increasing ultimate strengths and reducing concrete permeability.

It enables higher slumps to be achieved in construction and reduces labour costs by allowing work to progress more rapidly. It also improves the consistency and quality of the concrete by reducing segregation, bleeding and the presence of air bubbles and gives better pumpability. It can be used in a wide range of applications including road and bridges, tunnels and airport runways.

When used in construction, the normal dosage of Conplast SP430 is 0.7 to 2 litres per 100 kg of cement. It should be added to the mix along with the water required for hydration, normally with a truck mixer. The admixture should be agitated well to ensure full dispersion and complete mixing of the concrete, especially with sand. Site trials should be carried out to optimise dosages.

Conplast sp430 fosroc can be used in a wide variety of mixes and conditions, including high strength, low permeability and high flow concrete. However, for optimum results it is recommended that the concrete is mixed with a sand having a very high fineness. In addition, the concrete should be pre-wetted before adding the admixture to avoid segregation and additional air entrapment.


Concrete Plasticizers Products

concrete plasticizers products

concrete plasticizers products are a class of chemical admixtures that are added to concrete to achieve the desired workability. They increase the water-to-cement ratio of a concrete mix by decreasing the viscosity of the mixture. These admixtures are available in different types and grades for use in various temperatures and climates. They are also used in conjunction with pozzolanic ash to reduce the water content of the concrete.

Most of the concrete plasticizers are soluble in water. Some are soluble in hot water while others are not. They are available in a variety of formulations, each for a specific purpose such as increasing workability in certain applications, improving the quality of concrete and providing other benefits such as corrosion inhibition and retarding.

The concrete plasticizers that are soluble in hot water are referred to as high range water reducers (HRWR). These can reduce the water content of mass concrete by up to 15% at constant workability.

Lignosulphonic acid plasticizers are examples of low range water reducing admixtures. They have been around for over fifty years and continue to be used in a wide range of construction projects.

Concrete requires a high degree of workability to be formed and compacted. The admixtures that improve the workability of the concrete are air-entraining, water-reducing and superplasticizers. The admixtures that improve the concrete properties other than workability are called specialty admixtures and include such items as corrosion inhibitors, shrinkage reducers, alkali-silica reactivity reduction and accelerators.


How Much Does High Early Strength Concrete Cost?

high early strength concrete cost

The cost of high early strength concrete can be quite expensive depending on the PSI (pounds per square inch) and the type of concrete. Many projects require a minimum PSI to pass inspections and to ensure that the structure is safe for use. This is especially true for outdoor projects such as sidewalks, driveways, and floor slabs. Using the correct PSI is essential to save money on construction costs and to minimize downtime during repairs.

In order to produce high-early strength concrete, a special type of cement must be used. This type of cement is called type III or high-early strength cement, and it reacts much quicker than regular Portland cement. In addition to this, type III cement has a higher water content, which helps the concrete set quickly. This fast reaction time and the increased water content help the concrete to reach its peak strength sooner, which saves both money and labor.

Another way to produce high-early strength concrete is by using a combination of hydration retarders. These are chemicals that slow down the rate at which water enters the concrete. This is done by adding them to the concrete mix prior to pouring. It is also possible to use type III cement in conjunction with polycarboxylic superplasticizers. These are a group of chemicals that improve the workability and strength of the concrete.

The price of high-early strength concrete is typically around $150 to $170 per cubic yard or $1,405 to $1,595 for a full load delivered. In addition to the cost of the concrete, other expenses may include formwork. If the project requires a sidewalk or driveway, this can cost $2 to $3 per linear foot for plywood forms with stakes, nails, and form oil. If the project requires concrete for a foundation or building wall, the costs can be more substantial at $6 to $10 per square foot of contact area for formwork.


Lightweight Gypsum Concrete for Multifamily Projects

lightweight gypsum concrete

If you’ve ever worked on a multifamily construction project, then chances are good that your team used gypsum concrete as an underlayment for the floor. Also known as gypcrete, this material is a combination of Portland cement, sand and gypsum, but it is far lighter than standard concrete. A team can pour up to 30,000 square feet in one day, which makes it less labor-intensive than applying traditional concrete.

The sand that is added to the mix has a rounded shape rather than angular or flat-shaped particles, which helps it better integrate with the gypsum concrete and improve its flow and self-leveling properties. Additionally, gypsum concrete is made with recycled sand as opposed to conventional Portland cement, which reduces the need for new materials in construction and is more environmentally friendly.

In addition to being light in weight, gypsum concrete is also fire resistant and sound attenuating. Thoma points out that the number one complaint of residents in multifamily projects is noise, and gypsum concrete can help address this issue by reducing sound transmission between floors. It is also highly effective in creating a fire-rated wall/ceiling assembly when poured at three-fourths of an inch.

Gypsum concrete is a cost-effective flooring solution for residential, commercial, and multifamily projects, especially when combined with radiant heating. In addition to its thermal and sound attenuating qualities, it also has high compressive strength that ensures long-term durability and structural integrity for any surface it covers. ColoradoCrete offers a floor leveling service that renovates existing wavy, pitted, sunken or cracked floors into a fresh and revitalized condition, ensuring they meet and exceed established standards for flatness.


Workability of Concrete Definition

workability of concrete definition

Workability of concrete is a physical property of fresh concrete. It refers to the ease with which the mix can be transported, placed and compacted. Workability is influenced by many factors such as water/cement ratio, aggregate size and shape, type of mix design, admixtures, and the method used to prepare the concrete.

In general, higher workability results in a more fluid concrete that can be easily formed into the required shape. This is important when the concrete needs to be pumped or placed using other means such as a roller. A high level of workability also allows the concrete to be placed quickly and without segregation.

The most commonly used measure of workability is the slump test which measures the consistency of a concrete mix. The slump test involves filling a mould in the shape of a frustum of cone with bottom diameter 20 cm, top diameter 10 cm and height 30 cm with concrete which is then tamped down 25 times. The slump of the concrete after this is then measured in mm.

Increasing the water content increases the concrete’s workability by providing more paste that coats the aggregate particles and aids in compaction. However, adding too much water can decrease the strength of the concrete as it inhibits proper hydration and leads to segregation and poor finish.

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